Biologically Plausible Learning of Text Representation with Spiking Neural Networks

Marcin Białas, Marcin Mirończuk, Jacek Mańdziuk

2020 W: Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XVI / Thomas Bäck, Mike Preuss, André Deutz, Hao Wang, Carola Doerr, Michael Emmerich, Heike Trautmann; Cham: Springer, s. 433-447

International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature. Leiden, 2020-09-05 - 2020-09-09

This study proposes a novel biologically plausible mechanism for generating low-dimensional spike-based text representation. First, we demonstrate how to transform documents into series of spikes (spike trains) which are subsequently used as input in the training process of a spiking neural network (SNN). The network is composed of biologically plausible elements, and trained according to the unsupervised Hebbian learning rule, Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). After training, the SNN can be used to generate low-dimensional spike-based text representation suitable for text/document classification. Empirical results demonstrate that the generated text representation may be effectively used in text classification leading to an accuracy of 80.19% on the bydate version of the 20 newsgroups data set, which is a leading result amongst approaches that rely on low-dimensional text representations.

http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-030-58112-1.pdf

Childhood trauma, alexithymia, and mental states recognition among individuals with alcohol use disorder and healthy controls

Maciej Kopera, Justyna Zaorska, Elisa M. Trucco, Hubert Suszek, Paweł Kobyliński, Robert A. Zucker, Malwina Nowakowska, Marcin Wojnar, Andrzej Jakubczyk

2020 Drug and Alcohol Dependence, T. 217, Art. 208301, s. 1-8

Background: Although prior work indicates a link between childhood trauma, alexithymia, and mental states recognition, empirical support is limited. Moreover, findings based on adult samples are mixed. Previous studies demonstrate that childhood trauma might either enhance, preserve, or reduce mental states recognition in selected at-risk populations. The current study investigates whether alcohol use disorder (AUD) status moderates the association between childhood trauma, alexithymia, and mental states recognition in a treatment-seeking AUD sample and non-AUD healthy adults.
Methods: Data comes from 255 individuals participating in an ongoing project that compares emotional and behavioral functioning of patients treated in an inpatient setting for AUD and a comparison sample of 172 healthy controls (HCs). Mental states recognition was measured using a computerized version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (RMET). The presence of childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Demographic information, as well as alcohol drinking and psychopathological symptoms were assessed. A moderated mediation model was estimated whereby alexithymia was included as a mediator in the association between childhood trauma and RMET performance, with AUD diagnosis status moderating the link between alexithymia and RMET performance.
Results: Findings provide support for moderated mediation. Childhood emotional trauma impacted negative mental states recognition performance via difficulty describing feelings, but only among HCs (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Findings highlight the impact that AUD status has on the association between early life emotional trauma and difficulty describing feelings on individual differences in mental states recognition.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037687162030466X?via%3Dihub

Childhood trauma, emotion regulation and pain in alcohol-dependent individuals

J. Zaorska, M. Kopera, M. Nowakowska, P. Kobylinski, M. Wojnar, A. Jakubczyk

2020 EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRY, T. 67, Supplement 1, s. S290-S290

Introduction: Several studies have confirmed that the experience of childhood trauma, poor emotion regulation as well as experience of physical pain may contribute to development and poor treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence (AD). However, littleis known about mutual relationships between all these factors in individuals with AD.
Objectives: to analyze associations between childhood trauma, emotion regulation and pain tolerance in alcohol-dependent individuals.
Methods: The study group comprised 165 individuals diagnosed with AD. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to investigate different types of trauma during childhood; the Brief Symptom Inventory – to assess anxiety symptoms; the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) – to assess emotional dysregulation and
Pain Resilience Scale – to measure self-reported pain tolerance.
Results: Childhood emotional abuse (CTQ subscale score), anxiety, emotional dysregulation (DERS total score), and the covariates (sex
and age) explained almost 16% of the variance in pain tolerance (R2 = 0.156; F[5, 138] = 5.094; p < 0.001). Childhood emotional abuse was positively associated with anxiety, anxiety was positively associated with emotional dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation was negatively associated with pain resilience, adding up to the
indirect negative association between childhood emotional abuse and pain tolerance. All of the correlations were significant. The statistical procedure proved anxiety and emotional dysregulation, operating in serial, mediated the effect of childhood emotional abuse on pain resilience in the study group.
Conclusions: Addressing the issue of emotional dysregulation and physical pain in relation to childhood trauma, may be an important part of alcohol dependence therapeutic treatment programs

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-psychiatry/article/eposter-viewing/D36C52D45873073B3F9642A91F6EB46C

Childhood Trauma, Emotion Regulation, and Pain in Individuals With Alcohol Use Disorder

Justyna Zaorska, Maciej Kopera, Elisa M. Trucco, Hubert Suszek, Paweł Kobyliński, Andrzej Jakubczyk

2020 Frontiers in Psychiatry, T. 11, Art. 554150, s. 1-10

Introduction: Several studies have confirmed that the experience of childhood trauma, poor emotion regulation, as well as the experience of physical pain may contribute to the development and poor treatment outcomes of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, little is known about how the joint impact of these experiences may contribute to AUD.
Objectives: To analyze associations between childhood trauma, emotion regulation, and pain in individuals with AUD.
Methods: The study sample included 165 individuals diagnosed with AUD. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to investigate different types of trauma during childhood (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and neglect), the Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess anxiety symptoms, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) was used to assess emotional dysregulation, and the Pain Resilience Scale and Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire were used to measure self-reported pain tolerance and sensitivity.
Results: Childhood emotional abuse (CTQ subscale score) was positively associated with anxiety, anxiety was positively associated with emotional dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation was negatively associated with pain tolerance. Accordingly, there was support for a significant indirect negative association between childhood emotional abuse and pain tolerance. The serial mediation statistical procedure demonstrated that anxiety and emotional dysregulation mediated the effect of childhood emotional abuse on pain resilience among individuals with AUD.
Conclusions: Targeting emotional dysregulation and physical pain that can result from childhood trauma may have particular therapeutic utility among individuals treated for AUD.

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.554150/full

Detection of Strong and Weak Moments in Cinematic Virtual Reality Narration with the Use of 3D Eye Tracking

Paweł Kobyliński, Grzegorz Pochwatko

2020 W: ACHI 2020 : The Thirteenth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions / Jaime Lloret Mauri, Diana Saplacan, Klaudia Çarçani, Prima Oky Dicky Ardiansyah, Simona Vasilache; Valencia : IARIA, s. 280-284

International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions ACHI 2020, Valencia, 2020-11-21 - 2020-11-25

Cinematic Virtual Reality (CVR) is a medium growing in popularity among both filmmakers and researchers. The medium brings challenges for movie and video makers, who need to narrate in a different way than in traditional movies and videos to keep viewers’ attention in the right place of the 360-degree scene. In order to ensure an adequate pace of development, tools are needed to conduct systematic, reliable and objective research on narration in CVR. In the short paper, the authors for the first time fully report results of the initial empirical test of their recently developed Scaled Aggregated Visual Attention Convergence Index (sVRCa). The index utilizes 3D Eye Tracking (3D ET) data recorded during a CVR experience and allows measuring and describing the effectiveness of any system of attentional cues employed by a CVR creator. The results of the initial test are promising. The method seems to substantially augment the process of detection of strong and weak moments in CVR narration.

http://www.thinkmind.org/index.php?view=article&articleid=achi_2020_5_270_20136

Dorobek piśmienniczy jednostek naukowych z grupy nauk ekonomicznych w świetle oceny parametrycznej z roku 2017

Jacek Drogosz

2020 Studia Prawno-Ekonomiczne, T. 115, s. 203-226

Background: The process of appraising scientific institutions provides the possibility to review and rank their scientific publications, and makes it possible to assess the current publications in the aspect of the next appraisal. The article analyzes the scientific publications of scientific insti-tutions classified as economic.

Research purpose: The purpose of the research is to indicate the most popular journals, publish-ers, and scientific conferences in the economic disciplines, defining their significance in the next appraisal in 2021. It makes it possible to draw preliminary conclusions regarding the implemen-tation of scientific policy in the field of economic sciences.

Methods: The material was developed on the basis of data from scientific institutions that were assessed in the parametric appraisal in 2017. Using analytical methods, information on the literary output of researchers from the economic disciplines was extracted. Data on journals, publishers, and conferences were ranked. Various data records by the reporting agents were taken into ac-count, which were unified for this work.

Conclusions: The analysis shows that alarge part of the most valuable literary output in the studied disciplines will lose its relevance in the next evaluation. There is aneed to adapt to new appraisal principles in order to increase the importance of scientific achievements. It was pointed out that the publications under study in the field of economics are not fully representative.

http://journals.ltn.lodz.pl/index.php/Studia-Prawno-Ekonomiczne/article/view/988

Dorobek piśmienniczy pracowników naukowych z dyscypliny bibliologia i informatologia w świetle oceny parametrycznej działalności naukowej polskich jednostek naukowych z roku 2017

Jacek Drogosz

2020 Przegląd Biblioteczny, T. 88, z. 1, s. 65-80

This article presents informations about scientific literature of researchers from the discipline of bibliology and information science from 2013-2016. The purpose/thesis – The purpose of the research is indicating the most popular journals, publishers and scientific conferences in the discipline defining their significance in the next evaluation process (2021). It allows drawing preliminary conclusions regarding the implementation of scientific policy in the field of bibliology and information science. The methods – The material was developed on the basis of data from scientific institutions that were assessed in the parameterization process in 2017. Using analytical methods, information on the literary output of researchers representing the discipline was extracted. Data on journals, publishers and conferences have been sorted by ranking. Various data records by the reporting agents were taken into account, which were unified for the purposes of this work. The results/conclusions – The analysis shows that a large part of the most valuable literary output in the studied discipline will lose its relevance in the next evaluation. Attention was drawn to the need to adapt to new evaluation principles in order to increase the importance of scientific achievements. It was pointed out that the representativeness of the researched publications in the scientific achievements of the studied discipline is not full.

http://czasopisma.sbp.pl/przeglad-biblioteczny-1-2020/

Evaluation of Sentence Representations in Polish

Sławomir Dadas, Michał Perełkiewicz, Rafał Poświata

2020 W: TWELFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION, May 11-16 , 2020, PALAIS DU PHARO, Marseille, France : CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS / Nicoletta Calzolari, Frédéric Béchet, Philippe Blache, Khalid Choukri, Christopher Cieri, Thierry Declerck, Sara Goggi, Hitoshi Isahara, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Hélène Mazo, Asuncion Moreno, Jan Odijk, Stelios Piperidis; Marseille: European Language Resources Association, s. 1674-1680

12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference. Marsylia, 2020-05-11 - 2020-05-16

Methods for learning sentence representations have been actively developed in recent years. However, the lack of pre-trained models and datasets annotated at the sentence level has been a problem for low-resource languages such as Polish which led to less interest in applying these methods to language-specific tasks. In this study, we introduce two new Polish datasets for evaluating sentence embeddings and provide a comprehensive evaluation of eight sentence representation methods including Polish and multilingual models. We consider classic word embedding models, recently developed contextual embeddings and multilingual sentence encoders, showing strengths and weaknesses of specific approaches. We also examine different methods of aggregating word vectors into a single sentence vector.

https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.lrec-1.207

High-resolution net load forecasting for micro-neighbourhoods with high penetration of renewable energy sources

Paweł Kobyliński, Mariusz Wierzbowski, Krzysztof Piotrowski

2020 International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, T. 117, May 2020, Article number 105635

Though extensive, the literature on electrical load forecasting lacks reports on studies focused on existing re- sidential micro-neighbourhoods comprising small numbers of single-family houses equipped with solar panels. This paper provides a full description of an ANN-based model designed to predict short-term high-resolution (15- min intervals) micro-scale residential net load profiles. Since it seems especially relevant due to the specificity of local autocorrelations in load signal, in this paper we put stress on the systematic approach to feature selection in the context of lagged signal. We performed a case study of a real micro-neighbourhood comprising only 75 single-family houses. The obtained average prediction error was equivalent to 5.4 per cent of the maximal measured net load. The issues, i.e.: (1) the feasibility of micro-scale residential load forecasting taking into account renewable energy penetration, (2) the feasibility to predict net load with dense temporal resolution of 15 min, (3) the feature selection problem, (4) the proposed prosumption- and comparison-oriented prediction model key performance measure, could be of interest to engineers designing energy balancing systems for local smart grids.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2019.105635

Information Extraction System for Transforming Unstructured Text Data in Fire Reports into Structured Forms: A Polish Case Study

Marcin Mirończuk

2020 Fire Technology, T. 56, s. 545-581

In this paper, the author presents a novel information extraction systemthat analyses fire service reports. Although the reports contain valuable informationconcerning fire and rescue incidents, the narrative information in these reports hasreceived little attention as a source of data. This is because of the challenges associ-ated with processing these data and making sense of the contents through the use ofmachines. Therefore, a new issue has emerged: How can we bring to light valuableinformation from the narrative portions of reports that currently escape the attentionof analysts? The idea of information extraction and the relevant system for analysingdata that lies outside existing hierarchical coding schemes can be challenging forresearchers and practitioners. Furthermore, comprehensive discussion and proposi-tions of such systems in rescue service areas are insufficient. Therefore, the authorcomprehensively and systematically describes the ways in which information extrac-tion systems transform unstructured text data from fire reports into structured forms.Each step of the process has been verified and evaluated on real cases, including datacollected from the Polish Fire Service. The realisation of the system has illustratedthat we must analyse not only text data from the reports but also consider the dataacquisition process. Consequently, we can create suitable analytical requirements.Moreover, the quantitative analysis and experimental results verify that we can (1)obtain good results of the text segmentation (F-measure 95.5%) and classificationprocesses (F-measure 90%) and (2) implement the information extraction process andperform useful analysis

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10694-019-00891-z#citeas